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阅读美国法律引证

如何阅读美国法律引证(本文为转载材料,仅供学习)

How to Read a Legal Citation

Schuyler M. Cook

如何阅读法律引证

斯凯勒·M·库克(克利夫兰州立大学图书馆)

Tr. Chunfengqiushui

  

CASE CITATION(联邦判例引证)

  Whetsel v. Sherwood, ___ U.S. ___ , ___ S.Ct. ____ , 2003 WL 329302, 2003 U.S. LEXIS 1072, 71 U.S.L.W. (2003).

   This example shows a U.S. Supreme Court case citation to a denial of certiorari. In this diagram, the red part of a correct citation identifies the name of the case, Whetsel v. Sherwood. The text highlighted in green, shows a space for the eventual volume number, reporter abbreviation and page number of this pronouncement. Generally, when an appellate judge (or Justice) decides a case, s/he will write an opinion explaining the result reached. These opinions are collected by government printers and private publishers and issued in sets of books called reporters. A reporter is a series of books under one title that reprints these opinions for use in research. The item following the space for the volume number is the reporter abbreviation. The space for the number to the right of the reporter abbreviation is the page number on which the opinion begins. Following the first citation, separated by a comma, are any parallel citations to that case (here, the parallel citations are noted in purple). These parallel citations contain the same text of the opinion, but they are printed in reporters published by other companies or posted on the web or within one of the major legal databases. "WL" stands for WESTLAW and "U.S. LEXIS" stands for United States Supreme Court material within Lexis-Nexis. These parallel citations are often available before the official reporter (or in this example even before the West Publishing parallel in Supreme Court Reporter), so you may have occasion to look up those citations. Finally, the last item in a citation (blue, in this example) is the year the opinion was written.

   这个例子显示了一个被美国最高法院拒绝发放调卷令的案例引证。如上所示,一个正确的判例引证的红色字体部分表示判例的名称,即Whetsel v. Sherwood(韦塞尔诉舍伍德案)。突出的绿色字体部分表示判例在法律报告中的卷号、法律报告名称的缩写和其在该法律报告的页码。通常说来,当受理上诉的法官判决一个案例,她或他将写一份解释判决结果的法院意见书。这些意见书被官方出版机构和私营出版机构进行收集,然后以所谓的法律报告丛书的形式出版。法律报告是有着同一标题?#39029;?#29256;以供研究之用的系列书籍。紧接判例在法律报告中的卷号的是法律报告名称的缩写。法律报告名称缩写右边的是意见书在该法律报告中的起始页码。任何判例的平行引证(这里的平行引证用紫色字体表示)和第一个引证之间以逗号隔开。这些平行引证包括了意见书同样的正文内容,但是其?#40644;?#23427;的出版公司以法律报告书的形式出版或者公?#21152;?#32593;络或主要的法律数据库中。“WL”表示WESTLAW而“U.S. LEXIS”表示Lexis-Nexis数据库中美国最高法院的材料。这些平行印证通常可在正式的法律报告问世前获得(在这个例子中,或者甚至在西方出版集团的《最高法院判例汇编》(Supreme Court Reporter)的平行引证之前获得),因此你有机会查询这些引证。最后,引证的最末一项(即例子中的蓝色字体部分)是该法院意见书的撰写年份。

   For more information regarding citation of electronic legal materials please see the following:

   关于法律材?#31995;?#30005;子引证信息请参见如下网址:

   http://www.law.cornell.edu/citation/

   Some common reporters and abbreviations you are likely to see include:  

一些常见的法律报告和其缩写如下:

Decisions of Federal Courts(联邦法院的判决)

REPORTER NAME

(法律报告书的名称) ABBREVIATION

(缩写)

United States Reports(《美国判例汇编》) U.S.

Supreme Court Reporter(《最高法院判例汇编》) S.Ct.

United States Supreme Court Reports,Lawyer's Edition

(《美国最高法院判例汇编(律师版)》) L.Ed.

United States Supreme Court Reports,Lawyer's Edition, Second Series (《美国最高法院判例汇编(律师版,第二辑)》) L.Ed. 2d

United States Law Week(《美国法律周刊》) U.S.L.W.

Federal Reporter(《联邦汇编》) F.

Federal Reporter, Second Series(《联邦汇编(第二辑)》) F.2d

Federal Reporter, Third Series(《联邦汇编第三辑》) F.3d

Federal Supplement(《联邦补充判例》) F. Supp.

Federal Rules Decisions(《联邦诉讼程序判决》) F.R.D.

  

 

STATE CASE CITATION(州判例引证)

  State ex rel Walls v. Ohio Masonic Home et al.,

  98 Ohio St. 3d 285, 2003-Ohio-370, 782 N.E.2d 581, 2003 Ohio LEXIS 151(2003).  

   This example shows an Ohio Supreme Court case citation. The red part of a citation identifies the name of the case, State ex rel Walls v. Ohio Masonic Home. The text in green shows the volume number, reporter abbreviation, and beginning page number of this decision published in the official reporter for the State of Ohio. It is followed by the electronic citation found on the Ohio Supreme Court's website Reporter of Decisions search page: (http://www.sconet.state.oh.us/ROD/documents/).

   例子显示了俄亥俄州最高法院的案例印证。引证的红色字体部分表示盘里的名称,State ex rel Walls v. Ohio Masonic Home(州代表沃尔斯诉俄州?#24067;?#20250;之家案)。绿色字体部分表示判例在为俄州正式出版的法律报告中的卷号、法律报告名称的缩写和其在该法律报告中的起始页码。如果其紧接着的是俄州最高法院网站上判决报告书的电子引证,请参考如下网页:http://www.sconet.state.oh.us/ROD/documents/

   Generally, when an appellate judge (or Justice) decides a case, s/he will write an opinion explaining the result reached. These opinions are collected by government printers and private publishers and issued in sets of books called reporters. A reporter is a series of books under one title that reprints these opinions for use in research. The item following the volume number is the reporter abbreviation. The number to the right of the reporter abbreviation is the page number on which the opinion begins. Following the first citations, separated by a comma, are any parallel citations to that case (here, the parallel citations are noted in purple). The parallel citations contain the same text of the opinion, but they are printed in reporters published by other companies or posted on the web or within one of the major legal databases. In this example, there is no "WL" as the opinion of the court has been published in the print regional North Eastern reporter, 2nd Series (2d). Ohio LEXIS stands for Ohio Supreme Court material within LexisNexis.These parallel citations are often available before the official reporter. The last item in a citation (blue, in this example) is the year the opinion was written.

   通常说来,当一个受理上诉的法官判决一个案例,她或他将撰写一份解释判决结果的法院意见书。这些意见书被官方出版机构和私营出版机构进行收集,然后以所谓的法律报告丛书的形式出版。法律报告是有着同一标题?#39029;?#29256;以供研究之用的系列书籍。紧接与卷号的是项目是法律报告书名称的缩写。法律报告名称缩写右边的是意见书在该法律报告中的起始页码。任何判例的平行引证(这里的平行引证用紫色字体表示)和第一个引证之间以逗号隔开。这些平行引证包括了意见书同样的正文内容,但是其?#40644;?#23427;的出版公司以法律报告书的形式出版或者公?#21152;?#32593;络或主要的法律数据库中。在这个例子中,这是一份没有“WL”的法律意见书,其在已出版的《东?#34987;?#32534;第二辑》中。Ohio LEXIS表示LexisNexis法律数据库中俄州最高法院的材料。这些平行引证通常可在正式的法律报告书问世前获得。引证中最后一项(即例子中的蓝色字体部分)是法院意见书的撰写年份。

   For more specific information related to Ohio citation format click on the following links:

   更多有关俄州引证格式的具体信息请点击如下链接:

   Revisions to the Manual of Citation (July 12, 2002) (《引证手册修订本》)

   http://www.sconet.state.oh.us/ROD/pdf/Rev_Manual_Cit_02.pdf

   Rules for the Reporting of Opinions (May 2002) (《意见书的报告规则》)

   http://www.sconet.state.oh.us/rules/reporting/

   Decisions of State Courts(各州法院的判决)

   REPORTER NAME

  (法律报告书的名称) ABBREVIATION

  (缩写)

  Atlantic Reporter(《大西洋汇编》) A.

  Atlantic Reporter, Second Series(《大西洋汇编(第二辑)》) A.2d

  California Reporter(《加州汇编》) Cal. Rptr.

  North Eastern Reporter(《东?#34987;?#32534;》) N.E.

  North Eastern Reporter, Second Series(《东?#34987;?#32534;(第二辑》)) N.E. 2d

  North Western Reporter(《西?#34987;?#32534;》) N.W.

  North Western Reporter, Second Series(《西?#34987;?#32534;(第二辑)》) N.W. 2d

  New York Supplement(《纽约补充案例》) N.Y.S.

  New York Supplement, Second Series(《纽约补充案例(第二辑)》) N.Y.S. 2d

  Pacific Reporter(《太平洋汇编》) P.

  Pacific Reporter, Second Series(《太平汇编(第二辑)》) P. 2d

  Southern Reporter(《南方汇编》) So.

  Southern Reporter, Second Series(《南方汇编(第二辑)》) So. 2d

  South Eastern Reporter S.E.(《东南汇编》) S.E.

  South Eastern Reporter, Second Series S.E.2d

  (《东南汇编(第二辑)》) S.E. 2d

  South Western Reporter(《西南汇编》) S.W.

  South Western Reporter, Second Series(《西南汇编(第二辑)》) S.W. 2d

  Decisions of Ohio Courts(俄州法院的判决)

  OHIO REPORTER NAME

  (法律报告书的名称) ABBREVIATION

  (缩写)

  Ohio State Reports(《俄州判例汇编》) Ohio St.

  Ohio State Reports, Second Series(《俄州判例汇编(第二辑)》) Ohio St. 2d

  Ohio State Reports, Third Series*(《俄州判例汇编(第三辑)》) Ohio St. 3d

  Ohio Appellate Reports(《俄州上诉法院判例汇编》) Ohio App.

  Ohio Appellate Reports, Second Series

  (《俄州上诉法院判例汇编(第二辑)》) Ohio App. 2d

  Ohio Appellate Reports, Third Series*

  (《俄州上诉法院判例汇编(第三辑)》) Ohio App. 3d

  Ohio Miscellaneous(《俄州其它汇编》) Ohio Misc.

  Ohio Miscellaneous, Second Series*(《俄州其它汇编(第二辑)》) Ohio Misc. 2d

  Ohio Bar Reports(《俄州律师汇编》) Ohio B.

  Ohio Opinions(《俄州法院意见书》) Ohio Op.

  Ohio Opinions, Second Series(《俄州法院意见书(第二辑)》) Ohio Op. 2d

  Ohio Opinions, Third Series(《俄州法院意见书(第三辑)》) Ohio Op. 3d

  Ohio Nisi Prius Reports(《俄州初审案例汇编》) Ohio N.P.

  Ohio Nisi Prius Reports, New Series

  (《俄州初审案例汇编(第二辑)》) Ohio N.P. (n.s.)

  Ohio Decisions(《俄州判决汇编》) Ohio Dec.

  Ohio Decisions, Reprint(《俄州判决汇编(第二辑)》) Ohio Dec. Reprint

  Ohio Circuit Court Decisions(《俄州巡回法院判决汇编》) Ohio C.C. Dec.

  Ohio Circuit Reports (Jahn)(《俄州巡回法院法律报告》) Ohio C.C.

  Ohio Circuit Decisions(《俄州巡回法院判决汇编》) Ohio Cir. Dec.

  Ohio Circuit Court Reports, New Series

  (《俄州巡回法院法律报告(最新辑)》) Ohio C.C. (n.s.)

  Unreported Ohio Appellate Cases(《俄州上诉法?#20309;?#25253;告案例汇编》) Ohio App. Unrep.

  

  Other Reporters(其他法律报告书)

  REPORTER NAME

  (法律报告书的名称) ABBREVIATION

  (缩写)

  American Law Reports(《美国法律报告》) A.L.R.

  American Law Reports, Second Series(《美国法律报告(第二辑)》) A.L.R. 2d

  American Law Reports, Third Series(《美国法律报告(第三辑)》) A.L.R. 3d

  American Law Reports, Fourth Series(《美国法律报告(第四辑)》) A.L.R. 4th

  American Law Reports, Fifth Series(《美国法律报告(第五辑)》) A.L.R. 5th

  American Law Reports, Federal(《美国法律报告(联邦辑)》) A.L.R. Fed.

  Federal Rules Service

  (《联邦诉讼程序汇编》) Fed. R. Serv. (Callaghan)

  Federal Rules Service, Second Series

  (《联邦诉讼程序汇编(第二辑)》) Fed. R. Serv. 2d (Callaghan)

  Federal Rules Service, Third Series

  (《联邦诉讼程序汇编(第三辑)》) Fed. R. Serv. 3d (Callaghan)

  Federal Rules of Evidence Service

  (《联邦证据规则汇编》) Fed. R. Evid. Serv.(Callaghan)

  

 

STATUTE CITATION(法令引证)

   Example: Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990 (The popular name of an act)

   Each public law, as it is passed by Congress, is printed by the United States Government Printing Office and is called a slip law. These slip laws are usually cited by their public law number which consists of the Congress number and the Public Law number:

   P.L. 101-336

   Colors represent: Number of Congress - Public Law Number

   每一部由国会通过的公法由美国政府出版局(United States Government Printing OfficeGPO)印刷出版,其称之为单行法。这些单行法通常引证国会法律号和公法号:P.L. 101-336(不同颜色表示如下:红色字体部分是国会法律号,蓝色部分是公法号)

   The Congressional calendar is generally divided into two sessions. Following each session, the slip laws are published in chronological order in a set called the United States Statutes at Large.

   103 Stat. 327

   Colors represent: Volume Number - Abbreviation for the Statutes at Large - Page Number on which the law begins

   国会日程议程通常分为两部分。每?#20301;?#35758;之后,单行法按其制定之日期顺序排列出版,称之为美国成文法规大全(the United States Statutes at Large)。如103 Stat. 327。(不同颜色表示如下:红色字体部分表示卷号,蓝色字体部分是《美国成文法规大全》的缩写,绿色字体部分是其在该法规大全的起始页码)

   To provide for determining which statutes exist on a particular subject, the Statutes at Large have been codified in a set called the United States Code. The Code brings all of the laws on the same subject or topic together.

   为规定?#38405;?#19968;个特殊的主题为核心的法规,成文法规大全已经被编纂成《美国法典》(United States Code)。《美国法典》将所有的法规都列在同一主题或者话题下。

   The United States Code (U.S.C.) is the official edition published by the U.S. Government Printing Office. The GPO is slow in publishing the Code and in issuing supplements. Also, annotations (citations) to court decisions interpreting the statutes are not included in the official U.S. Code.

   《美国法典》是由美国政府出版局(GPO)出版的官方版本。美国政府出版局出版法典、发行附录的速度?#19979;?#21516;样,针对解释法规的法院判决的评注(引证)没有包含在官方的《美国法典?#20998;?#20013;。

   There are two privately published annotated editions of the code:

   United States Code Annotated (U.S.C.A.), published by Thomson/West, and the

   United States Code Service (U.S.C.S.), published by LexisNexis.

   美国法典有两个非正式的已出版的评注本:由汤姆森/西方出版集团出版的《美国法典注释》(United States Code AnnotatedUSCA)和由LexisNexis出版的《美国法典服务》(United States Code ServiceUSCS)。

   Both sets are kept up to date by annual pocket parts and pamphlets issued throughout the year. Each also has a detailed index, and each code section is annotated with citations to court decisions interpreting that section. There may also be annotations, or references, to relevant secondary sources.

   上述两书每年均以发行口袋书或小册子的形式保持更新。两者都有详细的索引,法典的每一节都引证解?#36879;?#33410;的法院判决来进行注释。针对二次资源也有注释和参考资料。

   42 U.S.C.A. §12101 (West 2005)

   42 U.S.C.S. §12101 (LexisNexis 2003)

   Colors represent: Title Number - Name of Code - Code section - Publisher - Date of volume or supplement

   (不同颜色表示如下:红色字体部分表示主题号,橙色字体部分表示法典名称的缩写,绿色字体部分表示法典的节号,蓝色字体部分表示出版公司,紫色字体部分表示该卷或附录的出版年份。)

   For further information on citations:

   The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation (Columbia Law Review Ass'n et al. eds., 18th ed. 2005)

   Mary Miles Prince, Bieber's Dictionary of Legal Abbreviations (Prince's 5th ed. 2001)

   更多关于法律引证的信息请参考:《蓝皮书?#21644;?#19968;引证体系》(The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation )和Mary Miles Prince主编的《法律缩略语词典》。

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